It is sometime difficult to gather detailed domain knowledge about the development and use of medical devices. This page provides a variety of resources that we have accumulated from publicly available material on the web that may prove useful to researchers working on the Open PCA Pump and other projects.

PCA Pump in nutshell

PCA Clinical Tutorials from Columbia Gorge Community College

Baxter PCA Pump Tutorial

PCA Clinical Guidelines

  • Patient-Controlled Analgesia: Making it Safer for Patients , Cohen et al. (.pdf)
  • Patient-Controlled Analgesia: Guidelines of Care, San Diego Patient Safety Taskforce (.pdf)
  • Acute Post operative Analgesia Guidelines: Patient Controlled Analgesia, Royal Cornwall Hospitals, UK (.pdf)
  • Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) Policy for Adult and Paediatric Patients, West Hertfordshire, UK (.pdf)
  • PCA Safety Checklist, from the Physician-Patient Alliance for Health & Safety (.pdf

PCA Pump Prescription Forms and Drug Dosage

  • Physician's Order Form -- New Hanover Regional Medical Center (.pdf)
  • Physician's Order Form -- Overlake Hospital Medical Center (.pdf)
  • Physician's Order Form -- St. Luke's Hospital (Chesterfield, MO) (.pdf)
  • Morphine Dosage

PCA Pump Prescription Auto-Programming

  • From Smart Pumps to Intelligent Infusion Systems – The Promise of Interoperability, Patient Safety and Quality Health Care, May/June 2014. (.pdf)

PCA Pump Product Spec Sheets and Marketing Materials

PCA Pump Problems

Improving Pump Safety via Monitoring of Respiratory Health

  • A story about a loss of life and motivation for dedicated monitoring for PCA pumps using capnography (
  • Medical Device Plug-n-Play Project's overview of using the Integrated Clinical Environment (ICE) to implement a safety-interlock for a PCA pump based on capnography and pulse oximetry monitoring. ( (see the videos under Scenario #1)
  • Clinical study on PCA monitoring -- Maddox et al. "Continuous Respiratory Monitoring and a `Smart' Infusion System Improve Safety of Patient-Controlled Analgesia in the Postoperative Period." (.pdf)
  • Clinical study on PCA monitoring -- Maddox et al. "Clinical Experience with Capnography Monitoring for PCA Patients." (.pdf)
  • Clinical study on PCA monitoring -- Overdyk et al. "Improving Outcomes in Med-Surg Patients with Opiod-Induced Respiratory Depression." (.pdf)